Petroleum has been known since the dawn of modern civilization. Although large quantities have been recovered and consumed, the basic science of petroleum is still developing. Specifically, very little is known about the role of metals in petroleum. Although the amount of metals present in petroleum is trace, the impact of successful industrial processing on clean environmental control is immense.
Trace metals present in petroleum are important both in the genesis of petroleum and its refining. Furthermore, the consequence of emission and erosion is directly related to metals. An understanding of this nature will increase the knowledge of the scientists as well as of the energy-concerned public.
This book is a general survey of the nature of trace metals in petroleum, followed by the analytical methods for determination of metals in petroleum. The topics of the metals present in by-products of petroleum are then discussed. Basic information on geochemistry, bondings, demetallation and newly discovered metals such as molybdenum is presented. Finally, the important problem of recovery of these trace metals for resource use is raised.
This book developed from the symposium on "The Role of Trace Metals in Petroleum" sponsored by the American Chemical Society, Chicago, August 1973, of which the present editor was the chairman. Through this period, the zeal and interest of many authors never diminished, and for this I am grateful. I also thank Mrs. Darlene Baxter and many other students for their help.
1. Chemical Aspects of Metals in Native Petroleum (T. F. Yen ) 1
2. The Nature of Metals in Petroleum (R. H. Filby) 31
3. Determination of Trace Metals in Petroleum—General Considerations (J. Eppolito and H. A. Braier) 59
4. Determination of Trace Metals in Petroleum—Instrumental Methods (H. A. Braier and J. Eppolito) 65
5. Neutron Activation Methods for Trace Elements in Crude Oils (R. H. Filby and K. R. Shah) 89
6. Geochemistry of Trace Elements in Crude Oils, Alberta, Canada (B. Hitchon, R. H. Filby and K. R. Shah) 111
7. Metals in New and Used Petroleum Products and By-Products—Quantities and Consequences (I. C. Smith, T. L. Ferguson and B. L. Carson) 123
8. Trace Analysis of Iron, Nickel, Copper and Vanadium in Petroleum Products (A. J. Smith, J. O. Rice, W. C. Shaner, Jr. and C. C. Cerato) 149
9. The Occurrence of Molybdenum in Petroleum (W. K. T. Gleim, J. G. Gatsis and C. J. Perry) 161
10. Vanadium and Its Bonding in Petroleum (T. F. Yen) 167
11. Oxidative Demetallation of Oxovanadium(IV) Porphyrins (J. M. Sugihara, J. F. Branthaver and K. W. Willcox) 183
12. Kinetics Studies of Demetallation of Metalloporphyrins by Acids (B. Don and T. F. Yen) 195
13. American Oil Refineries: Can They Yield Vanadium? (R. P. Fischer) 201
14. Free World Supply and Demand for Vanadium From 1973 Through 1980 (F. J. Shortsleeve) 207